Native North American Orchid Discussion List Reference page

**NNAODL Reference List**

Native North American Orchid Discussion List

Updated February 6, 2000

Here are references for, mostly, orchids of North America. If there seemed to be an area of interest, sources mainly about orchids from other places are also included.

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There are references here about the culture of hardy orchids from Europe and Asia as well as those from North America.

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?? ?? Of Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae. Can. J Bot. 62: 2128-2134.

?? ?? prairie fringe orchid (Platanthera leucophaea Nutt. Lindl.) in Illinois. Erigenia 12: 26-40.

Ackerman, J. D. 1977. Biosystematics of the Genus Piperia Rydb. (Orchidaceae) Bot. Journal of the Linnaean Soc. 75: 245-270.

Ackerman, J. D. & M. R. Mesler 1979. Pollination biology of Listera cordata (Orchidaceae) American Journal of Botany 66: 820-824.

Ackerman, J.D. 1975 Reproductive biology of Goodyera oblongifolia (Orchidaceae). Madrono 23: 191-198.

Ackerman, J.D. 1977. Biosystematics of the genus Piperia Rydb. (Orchidaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnaean Society 5:245-270.

Ackerman,J. D. and A. M. Montalvo 1990. Short- and long-term limitations to fruit production in a tropical orchid. Ecology 71:263-272.

Ackerman, J. D. 1995. An Orchid Flora of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Memoirs Volume 73. New York Botanical Garden,Bronx, NY.

Actor, G.F. 1984. Natural Hybridization of Cypripedium candidum and Cypripedium calceolus ? M.S. theses

Adams, M.S. 1970. Adaptations of Aplectrum hymale to the environment: effects of preconditioning temperature on net photosynthesis. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 97:219-224

Albert, V.A. 1994. Cladistic relationships of the slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae: Orchidaceae) from congruent morphological and molecular data. Lindleyana, 9: 115-32.

Albert, V.A., Pettersson, B., 1994. Expansion of genus Paphiopedilum Pfitzer to include all conduplicate-leaved slipper orchids (Cypripedioideae - Orchidaceae). Lindleyana, 9:133-9.

Alec Pridgeon 1992 The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Orchids

Alexander, C., I.J. Alexander, and G. Hadley. 1984. Phosphate uptake in relation to mycorrhizal infection. New Phytologist. 97: 401-11

Ames, Blanche 1947. Drawings of Florida Orchids

Ames, Oakes 1905. A synopsis of the Genus Spiranthes North of Mexico Orchidaceae Fasc. 1,145 pp

Ames, Oakes 1906. Habenaria orbiculata and H. macrophylla. Rhodora 4: 1-5.

Ames, Oakes 1910. Orchidaceae: Illustrations and Studies of the Family Orchidaceae - Volume IV: The Genus Habenaria in North America

Ames, Oakes 1921. Notes on New England Orchids. 1. Spiranthes Rhodora 23: 73-85.

Ames, Oakes 1922. Notes on New England Orchids. 1. The Mycorrhiza of Goodyera pubescens Rhodora 24: 37-46.

Ames, Oakes 1924. An Enumeration of the Orchids of the United States and Canada ? Boston 120 pp

Ames, Oaks. 1910. Orchidaceae, Fasc. IV

Anderson 1991. Symbiotic and asymbiotic germination and growth of Spiranthes magnicamporum (Orchidaceae). Lindleyana 6(4): 183-186.

Anderson, A. B. 1989. Asymbiotic germination of seeds of some North American orchids. pp. 75-80 in C.E. Sawyers ed. Conference proceedings: North American native terrestrial orchid propagation and production. Brandywine River Museum, Pennsylvania.

Anderson, A. B., & J. P. Goltz 1982. Common Twayblade, Listera ovata (Orchidaceae) in Wellington County, Ontario: A Second North American Record Canadian Field-Naturalist 96: 351-352.

Anderson, A.B. 1990. Asymbiotic germination of seeds of some North American orchids. In North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Propagation and Production Conference Proceedings, March 1989. Brandywine Conservancy, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania 75-80

Anderson, Allan. 1996. The Reintroduction of Platanthera ciliaris in Canada, In North American Native Terrestrial Orchids: Propagation and Production, Conference Proceedings, March 16 & 17, 1996 Edited by Carol Allen, Germantown, Maryland: North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Conference pp73-76

Andrews, H. 1961. Two new orchid records for Ontario Rhodora 63: 175-176.

Anon., 1987 Conservancy preserves outstanding natural area. Wildlife in North Carolina 51:30

Antlfinger, A.E. 1993. Ecology of terrestrial orchids. American Orchid Society Bulletin, March: 280-282.

Arditti, J, 1967. Factors affecting the germination of orchid seeds. Bot. Rev. 33(1): 1-97.

Arditti, J. 1982. Orchid Biology.II. Reviews and perspectives, Orchid seed germination and seedling culture a manual, ed.J. Arditti,. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Arditti, J. 1992. Fundamentals of Orchid Biology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Arditti, J., J.D. Michaud, and P.L. Healey 1979. Morphometry of orchid seeds. I. Native California and related species of Cypripedium American Journal of Botany 60: 1129-39.

Arditti, J., M.A. Clements, G. Fast, G. Hadley, G. Nishimura, And R. Ernst. 1982 Orchid seed germiniation and seedling culture - a manual. In J. Arditti [ed.], Orchid biology: reviews and perspectives, II Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York

Arditti, Joseph; Ernst, Robert, 1993. Micropropagation of orchids. New York : Wiley,

Arditti,J., R. Ernst, T.W. Yam, C. Glabe 1990. The contributions of orchid mycorrhizal fungi to seed germination: a speculative review. Lindleyana 5(4): 249-255.

Arft, A. M. and Ranker, T. A. 1998. Allopolyploid origin and population genetics of the rare orchid Spiranthes diluvialis. Amer. J. Bot. 85(1): 110-122.

Argue, C. P. 1995. Notes on the pollination of grass-pink, Calopogon tuberosus (L.) BSP., rose pogonia, Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Juss., and dragon's mouth, Arethusa bulbosa L. North Amer. Native Orchid J. 1: 274-285.

Argue, C. P. 1996. Pollination notes on Minnesota orchids: heart-leaved twayblade, Listera cordata. North Amer. Native Orchid J. 2: 20-27.

Argue, C. P. 1998. Pollination biology in some members of the yellow fringed orchid complex. Part 1. Floral morphology, pollinators and pollination mechanisms. North Amer. Native Orchid J. 4(1): 3-30.

Argus, G.W. and D.J. White eds. 1982. Atlas of the rare vascular plants of Ontario. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Botany Division, Ottawa.

Argus, G.W., & K.M. Pryer Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario/Atlas des plantes vasculaires rares de l'Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources. Ottawa, Ontario.

Argus, G.W., & K.M. Pryer 1990. Rare Vascular Plants in Canada - Our Natural Heritage Botany Division of the Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario.

Atwood, J.T., Jr. 1984 The Cypripedium calceolus L. complex in North America. In Proceedings of th e11th World Orchid Conference, K.W. Tan (Ed.) pp.106-110.

Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana . 9:171-186.

Atwood, J. T. 1987. An approach to regional orchid floras: the florula. In: Kondo, K. and Hashimoto, K., (eds.). Proceedings of the 12th World Orchid Conference: Hiroshima-Shi, Japan pp. 46-50.

Auclair, A. N. 1972. Comparative ecology of the orchids Aplectrum hyemale and Orchis spectablis Torrey Botanical Club - Bulletin 99: 1-10.

Authier, P. and Gasnier, D. 1995. Une orchidee bien connue, nouvelle pour la Grece: Goodyera repens (L.) R.Br. Orchidophile 26: 208-213.

Ayensu, E. S., & R. A. Defilipps 1978. Endangered and Threatened Plants of the United States Smithsonian Institution and World Wildlife Fund Inc. Washington, D. C. 403 pp

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Bailes, C., Clements, M., Cribb, P.J. & Muir, H. 1986. The cultivation of European orchids, Kew Magazine 3: 8-13.

Bailes, C., Clements, M., Cribb, P.J., Muir, H. & Tasker, S. 1987. The cultivation of European orchids. Orchid Rev. 95: 19-24.

Baldwin, Henry 1884. The orchids of New England Wiley, New York. 158 pp

Baldwin, J. T. 1970. White phase in flower development in Cypripedium acaule Rhodora 72: 142-43.

Baldwin, W. K. 1961 Malaxis paludosa (L)sw. in the Hudson Bay lowlands Canadian Field-Naturalist 75: 74-77.

Ballard W.W. 1990. Further notes on Cypripedium germination. In: Sawyers C., (ed.) North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Propagation and Production. Chadds Ford: Brandywine Conservancy, 92.

Ballard, W.W. 1987. Sterile propagation of Cypripedium reginae from seeds American Orchid Society Bulletin 56: 935-946.

Barbosa, P. 1978. Host plant exploitation by the gypsy moth, Lymantria disbar. Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 24:28-37.

Bartareau, T. 1995. The pollination of Cymbidium madidum Lindley and C. suave R.Br. by native bees - a case of floral reward deception? The Orchadian 11(10): 487-494,

Bartlett, Harley H. 1922. Color types of Corallorhiza maculata Raf. Rhodora 24: 145-158.

Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. 1989. Physiology of dormancy and germination in relation to seed bank ecology,. Ch. 4 in Leck, M. A. et al. Ecology o f Soil Seed Banks. Academic Press, NY.

Bateman,R.M., A.M. Pridgeon, and M.W. Chase. 1997 Phylogenetics of subtribe Orchidinae (Orchidoidea, Orchidaceae) based on nuclear ITS sequences. 2. Infrageneric relationships and reclassification to achieve monophyly of Orchis sensu strictu Lindleyana 12 (3): 113-141.

Baumann, H. & Künkele, S. 1982. Die Wildwachsenden Orchideen Europas. Kosmos, Stuttgart.

Beardmore, J, Pegg, G.F. 1981. A technique for the establishment of mycorrhizal infection in orchid tissue grown in aseptic culture - New Phytol. 87:527 - 535.

Bechtal, Cribb, Launert 1991 Manual of Cultivated Orchid Species MIT Press

Beckner, J. 1979. A method of growing the Impossible bog orchids. American Orchid Society Bull. 48: 556-560.

Beyrle, H. F. Smith, S. E.: 1993. Excessive carbon prevents greening of mycorrhizal seedlings of the terrestrial orchid Orchis morio. Lindleyana 8(2): 97-99.

Beyrle, H. F., Smith, S. E., Peterson, R. L., and Franco, C. M. M. 1995. Colonization of Orchis morio protocorms by a mycorrhizal fungus: effects of nitrogen nutrition and glyphosate in modifying the responses. Canad. J. Bot. 73: 1128-1140.

Bingham, Marjorie T. 1939. Orchids of Michigan Cranbrook Institute. Sci. Bull. 15. 87 pp

Bjugstad, Ardell J. & William A. Fortune. 1989. The western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara): monitoring and research. In: Proceedings of the eleventh North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. University of Nebraska Printing: 197-199.

Bjugstad, Rochelle A. & Ardell J. Bjugstad. 1989. Do you know Platanthera praeclara? In: Bragg, Thomas B.; Stubbendieck, James, eds. Prairie pioneers: ecology, history and culture: proceedings of the llth North American prairie conference; 1988 August 7-11; Lincoln, NE. University of Nebraska Printing: 201-202.

Bjugstad-Porter, Rochelle. 1993. The Western prairie fringed orchid (Platanthera praeclara): It's response to burning and associated mycorrhizal fungi. Laramie, WY: University of Wyoming. 116 p. M.S. thesis. (Available from University of Wyoming)

Blackburn, T.C. and K. Anderson, (eds.). 1993. Before the Wilderness. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Blair, K. R. 1909. The Orchids of Ohio Ohio Nat. 10: 24-35.

Boivin, B. 1967. Enumueration des plantes du Canada. V-Monopsides (lére partie). Naturaliste Canadien, 94: 137-157.

Boivin, B. 1979. Flora of the Prairie Provinces, part IV. Provancheria 5, Memoirs de I'Herbier Louis-Marie Faculte d'Agriculture, Universite Laval, Quebec. 251 pp.

Boivin,B. 1960 Orchis rotundifolia Naturaliste Canad. 87: 42.

Boland,J.T. & Scott, P.J. 1991. Ecological aspects of Arethusa bulbosa, Calopogon tuberosus, and Pogonia ophioglossoides (Orchidaceae) in eastern Newfoundland. I. Flowering and fruiting patterns. Rhodora, 93(875): 248-55.

Bornbusch, A.H., Swender, L.A., Hoogerwerf, D.L., 1994. Genetic variation in Massachusetts populations of Cypripedium arietinum R.Brown in Ait. and C. acaule Ait. (Orchidaceae). Rhodora, 96(888): 354-69.

Bowles, M.L. 1983. The tallgrass prairie orchids Platanthera leucophaea -,and Cypripedium candidum. Natural Areas J. 3(4): 1437.

Bowles, M.L. 1985. Distribution and reproductive success of the prairie fringed orchid in southeastern Wisconsin sand p. MS Thesis, Univ. Ill. at Urbana-Champaign.

Bowles, M.L., R. Flakne, and R.Dombeck, 1992. Status and population fluctuations of the eastern

Bowling, J.C. and P.A. Thompson. 1972. On Storing Orchid Seeds. Orch id Rev. 80: 120-121.

Boyden, T. C. 1982. The pollination biology of Calypso bulbosa var.americana (Orchidaceae): Initial deception of bumblebee visitors Oecologia 55: 178-184.

Brackley, F. E. 1985. The Orchids of New Hampshire Rhodora 87: 1-117.

Brackley, Frances E. 1981. The Orchidaceae of New Hampshire. M.S. Thesis. University of New Hampshire. Durham, NH.

Bradbury, P. 1994. (comp.) National Pleione Report, incorporating Hardy Orchids. Bourne End. 41 pp.

Braun, E. L. 1967. The Monocotyledoneae, Cat-Tails to Orchids. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus, OH.

Braun, E. Lucy 1950. Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America Blakiston, Philadelphia. 596 pp

Brietung, A.J. 1957. Annotated catalogue of the vascular flora of Saskatchewan. American Midland Naturalist, 58(1): 1-75.

Brown, J. R., & P. M. Catling 1981. The status and distribution of Yellow Ladys-tresses Orchid (Spiranthes ochroleuca (Rydb.) Rhdb.) in Ontario Ontario Field Biol. 35 (1): 7-12.

Brown, P. M. 1995. Checklist of the orchids of North America: north of Mexico. North Amer. Native Orchid J. Special publication no.1. Brown, P. M. 1995. New taxa. North Amer. Native Orchid J. 1: 286-292.

Brown, P. M. 1996. Taxonomic notes. North Amer. Native Orchid J. 2: 65-70.

Brown, Paul Martin 1993. A Field and Study Guide to the Orchids of New England and New York

Brown, Paul Martin. 1996. Orchids In North America, In North American Native Terrestrial Orchids: Propagation and Production, Conference Proceedings, March 16 & 17, 1996 Edited by Carol Allen, Germantown, Maryland: North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Conference pp 1-4

Brown, P.M. Stan Folsom (Illustrator) 1997. Wild Orchids of the Northeastern United States : A Field and Study Guide to the Orchids Growing Wild in New England, New York, and Adjacent Pennsylvania. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca NY

Brown, R.C., Lemmon, B.E., 1994. Pollen mitosis in the slipper orchid Cypripedium fasciculatum. Sexual Plant Reproduction, 7:87-94.

Brownell, V.R. 1981. The Small White Lady's-slipper Cypripedium candidum in Canada: a status report Wildlife branch, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Aylmer, Ontario 57 pp

Brownell, V.R. 1981 The Small Whorled Pogonia-Isotria medioloides (Pursch) Raf. A status report. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 33 pp.

Brumback, W. E. 1990. Commercial production of terrestrial orchids - what’s being done? Proceedings from a conference: North American native terrestrial orchid propagation and production. 84-86.

Brumback, W.E., and C.W. Fyler. 1988. Monitoring of Isotria medeoloides in New Hampshire--1988. Wildflower notes. New England Wild Flower Society. 3 (1):32-40

Brundrett, M.C., Y. Piché, and R.L. Peterson 1984. A new method for observing the Morphology ....?

Bruns, T.D., T.M. Szaro, M. Gardes, K.W. Cullings, J.J. Pan, D.L. Taylor, T.R. Horton, A. Kretzer, M. Garbelotto and Y. Li. 1998. A sequence database for the identification of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycetes by phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Ecology, v.7, n.3, (1998): 257-272.

Bulat Thomas J. and Marrilyn Bulat (1995) Hidden Orchids: a photographic discovery of the disappearing native orchids of the United States and Canada (ISBN #0-945213-19-0)

Burgeff, H. 1909. Die Wurzpilze der Orchideen, Ihre Kultur und Ihr Leben in der Pflanze. Fischer, Jena.

Burgeff, H. 1911. Die Anzpunct Tropischer Orchideen aus Samen. Fischer, Jena.

Burgeff, H. 1932. Saprophytismus und Symbiose - Jena.

Burgeff H. 1936. Samenkeimung der Orchideen und Entwicklung ihrer Keimpflanzen - Jena.

Burgeff, H. 1936. Die Samenkeimung der Orchideen G. Fischer, Jena. 312 pp

Burgeff, H. 1959. Mycorrhiza of orchids, in Orchids -A scientific survey. Ronald Press, New York, N.Y. pp. 361-395.

Butzin, F. 1981 Fimbriella, eine neue Orchideengattung. Willdenowia II: 321-325.

Burkhead, J.C., J.A. Marshall, and L.W. Zettler. 1998. In vitro symbiotic seed germination of the Florida Butterfly Orchid, Encyclia tampensis: Evidence of non-specificity for mycorrhizal fungi by an epiphytic orchid. ASB Bull. 45(2): (in press '99)

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Cain, Stanley A. 1944. Foundations of Plant Geography Harper, New York. 556 pp

Calvo, R. N. 1990. Four-year growth and reproduction of Cyclopogon cranichoides (Orchidaceae) in South Florida. American J. Botany 77: 736-741.

Calvo, R. N. 1993. Evolutionary, demography of orchids: intensity and frequency of pollination and the cost of fruiting. Ecology 74:1033-1042.

Campbell, E. O. 1970. Morphology of the fungal association in three species of Corallorhiza in Michigan Michigan Botanist 9:108-13.

Case, F. W. (Frederick W. Jr) 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region Revised edition Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 48

Case, F. W. Jr. 1962. Growing Native Orchids of the Great lakes Region American Orchid Society Bull. 31:437-445.

Case, F. W. Jr. 1965. Growing Native Orchids Orchidata, New York 9(2)

Case, F. W. Jr. 1965. Discovery of the Northern Twayblade, Listera borealis , in the Lake Superior Region of Ontario Michigan Bot. 4:118-121.

Case, F. W. Jr. 1967. Growing Native Orchids. In Handbook on Orchids Plants and Gardens 23(2): 66-72.

Case, F. W. Jr. 1983. Notes Concerning Changes in Great Lakes Populations Since 1964. In Proceedings from Symposium II and Lectures - North American Terrestrial Orchids Michigan Orchid Society, Southfield, MI 133-141.

Case, F. W. Jr. with William Schwab 1971. Isotria medeoloides , the Smaller Whorled Pogonia, in Michigan Michigan Bot. 10:39-43.

Case, F. W. Jr., & P. M. Catling 1983. The Genus Spiranthes (Orchidaceae) in Michigan Michigan Bot. 22:79-92.

Case, F. W., Jr 1983. Platanthera X vossii, a new natural hybrid orchid from northern lower Michigan Michigan Botanist 22:141-144.

Case, F. W. Jr. 1983. Notes concerning changes in the Great Lakes orchid populations since 1964. In North American terrestrial orchids. Symposium II. Proceedings and lectures, ed. E. H. Paxton, pp. 133-42. Ann Arbor, USA: Michigan Orchid Society.

Case, F. W., Jr. 1964. A hybrid twayblade and its rarer parent, Listera auriculata, in northern Michigan Michigan Botanist 3:67-70.

Case, F.W. 1989. Native orchid habitats: The horticulturist's viewpoint. In North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Propagation and Production. ed. C. E. Sawyers, . Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania: Brandywine Conservancy. pp. I -14

Case, M. A. 1993. High levels of allozyme variation within Cypripedium calceolus and low levels of divergence among its varieties Systematic Botany 18(4): 663-677.

Case, M. A. (Martha) 1994. Extensive variation in the levels of genetic diversity and degree of relatedness among five species of Cypripedium (Orchidaceae) American Journal of Botany 81(2): 175-184.

Cash, Catherine. 1991. The Slipper Orchids. Timber Press, Portland Oregon.

Catling P.M, Catling V.R. 1991. A synopsis of breeding systems and pollination in North American orchids. Lindleyana 6:187-210.

Catling, P.M. 1989. Biology of North American representatives of the subfamily Spiranthoideae, in North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Propagation and Production. Brandywine Conservancy. Chadds Ford, PA.

Catling, P. M. 1976. Spiranthes magnicamporum Sheviak, an addition to the orchids of Canada Canadian Field-Naturalist 90:467-470.

Catling, P. M. 1976. On the geographical distribution, ecology and distinctive features of Listera X veltmanii Case Rhodora 78:261-269.

Catling, P. M. 1980. Autogamy in northeastern North American orchids. Publ. of abstracts Can. Bot. Soc., Soc. of Am., Misc. Series Publ. 158:20

Catling, P. M. 1980. Systematics of Spiranthes L. C Richard in northeastern North America University of Toronto, Ph.D Thesis 551 pp

Catling, P. M. 1983. Pollination of northeastern North American Spiranthes (Orchidaceae) Canadian Journal of Botany 61:1080-1093.

Catling, P. M. 1983. Autogamy in eastern Canadian Orchidaceae: a review of current knowledge and some new observations Naturaliste Canadien 110:37-53.

Catling, P. M. 1983. Spiranthes ovalis var. erostellata (Orchidaceae), a new autogamous variety from the eastern United States Brittonia 35:120-125.

Catling, P. M. & J. E. Cruise 1974. Spiranthes casei , a new species from northeastern North America Rhodora 77:526-536 (vol.76?)

Catling, P.M. 1982. Breeding systems of northeastern North American Spiranthes (Orchidaceae) Canadian Journal of Botany 60:3017-39.

Catling, P.M. 1970. The Grass Pink in Ontario. Ontario Naturalist 8(3): 18-20.

Catling, P.M. 1978. Taxonomic Notes on Spiranthes casei Catling and Cruise and Spiranthes X intermedia Ames. Rhodora, 80(823): 377-389.

Catling, P.M. 1979. Breeding systems of northeastern Spiranthes ssp. Canadian Botanical Association Bulletin 12(3): 37 Abstr.

Catling, P.M. 1981. Taxonomy of autumn flowering Spiranthes species of southern Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Botany 59(7): 1253-1270.

Catling, P.M. 1982. Pollination of northeastern North American (Orchidaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany,

Catling, P.M. 1982. Autogamy in Eastern Canadian Orchidaceae; a review of current knowledge and some new observations, Naturaliste Canadien,

Catling, P.M. 1982. New combinations for forms and varieties of some North American orchids. Naturaliste Canadien, 109: 277-278.

Catling, P.M. & Z. Lucas. 1987. ?? Rhodora 89: 401-413.

Catling, P.M. and J.E. Cruise. 1974 Spiranthes casei, a new species from northeastern North America. Rhodora, 76 (808): 526-536.

Catling, P.M. and R.E. Whiting. 1976. Orchids - fragile and endangered. Ontario Naturalist 16 (3): 20-30.

Catling, P.M., & G. Knerer 1980. Pollination of the Small White Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium candidum) in Lambton County, Southern Ontario The Canadian Field-Naturalist 94 (4): 435-438.

Catling, P.M., Catling, V.R., 1994. Identification of Platanthera lacera hybrids (Orchidaceae) from New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Lindleyana, 9:19-32.

Catling, P.M., Sheviak, C.J., 1993. Taxonomic notes on some North American orchids. Lindleyana, 8:77-81.

Catling, Paul. M. 1980. Rain-assisted autogamy in Liparis loeselii (L.) L. C.Rich. (Orchidaceae) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 107:525-529

Champagne, P. 1997. Liparis loeselii en Oleron. Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n.s. 28: 107-108.

Champlin, R. L. 1976. Scotch Pine as an associate of the Tesselated Rattlesnake Plantain Rhodora 78:788-789

Chapman, William K.1997. Orchids of the Northeast : A Field Guide

Chu,Chin-Chang and Kenneth W. Mudge. 1996. Propagation and conservation of native lady’s slipper orchids (Cypripedium acaule, C. calceolus, and C. reginae), In: North American Native Terrestrial Orchids: Propagation and Production, Conference Proceedings, March 16 & 17, 1996 Edited by Carol Allen, Germantown, Maryland: North American Native Terrestrial Orchid Conference pp. 107-112

Clark, Lewis J. 1973. Wild Flowers of British Columbia. Sidney, B. C. Gray’s Publishing Ltd.

Clements, M. 1982. Developments in the symbiotic germination of Australian terrestrial orchids. In Stewart, J. & C.N. van der Merwe (eds)., Proc. 10th World orchid Conf. 269-273. South Afr. Orchid Council, Johannesburg.

Clements, M. 1988. Orchid mycorrhizal associations. Lindleyana 3: 73-83.

Clements, M. 1997. Orchid-fungus: host associations of epiphytic orchids. Proc. 12th World Orchid Conf: 80-83.

Clements, M.A., and R.K. Ellyard. 1979 The symbiotic germination of Australian terrestrial orchids American Orchid Society Bulletin 48: 810-816.

Clements, M.A., H. Muir, and P.J.Cribb 1986. A preliminary report on the symbiotic germination of European terrestrial orchids. Kew Bulletin, 41(2): 437-445

Close, R. C., N.T. Moore, A. I. Tomlinson, and A. D. Low 1978. Aerial dispersal of biological material from Australia to New Zealand International Journal of Biometeorology 22:1-19

Clymo, R.S. 1970. The growth of sphagnum: Methods of measurement. Journal of ecology, 58: 13-49.

Cochran, M.E. 1986. Consequences of pollination by chance in the pink lady's-slipper orchid, Cypripedium acaule. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

Cody, W.J. 1973 Ram's-head Lady's-slipper rediscovered in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay, 31(3): 180-181.

Cody, W.J. and D. Munro. 1980. The genus Listera (Twayblades) in New Brunswick. Canadian Field naturalist, 94 (4): 443-446.

Cody, W.J., G.W. Scotter and S. Talbot. 1979. Additions to the vascular plant flora of Nahanni National Park, Northwest Territories. Naturaliste Canadien 106: 439-450.

Coleman, Ronald A. 1991. Blooming Seasons for Wild Orchids in California Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. Vol. 60:9

Coleman, Ronald A. 1991. A Disjunct Location for Corallorhiza trifida var. verna Am. Orchid So. Bull. Vol. 60(4): 329-330

Coleman, Ronald A. 1995. The Wild Orchids of California. Comstock Publishing Associates/Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.

Cormack, R.G.H. 1948. The Orchids of the Cypress Hills. Canadian Field Naturalist 62: 155-156.

Correll, D.S. 1938. Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard U. 7: 1-18

Correll, D.S. 1947 Lloydia 10:218-228.

Correll, D.S. 1950. Native Orchids of North America north of Mexico Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Massachusetts

Correll, D.S. 1947. Revision of the Genus Govenia. Lloydia 10: 218-228

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